Bases are usually thought of as the chemical opposite of acids. They are commonly defined as compounds that form aqueous solutions that have a high pH (>7), cause litmus paper to turn blue, and react with acids to form water and salts. 

In the laboratory, bases are used as reagents or catalysts in many chemical reactions, and some are great conductors of electricity. In an industry setting, bases are used in many applications such as the manufacture of soap, paper, bleaching powder, and the synthetic fiber rayon.                       

Chemically, bases can be classified as:

  • Arrhenius substances that produce hydroxide (OH) ions in aqueous solutions, and include sodium hydroxide (lye or caustic soda), potassium hydroxide (or caustic potash), and ammonium hydroxide (or aqua ammonia)
  • Brønsted-Lowry substances such as ammonia (NH3) that can accept a proton or hydrogen ion
  • Lewis compounds such as ammonia, alkyl or aryl amines, and pyridines and pyrimidines that are electron pair donors

NOTE: A Lewis base is also a Brønsted-Lowry base, but a Lewis acid is not necessarily also a Brønsted-Lowry acid.

  Read More
Top Categories

Top Categories

Featured Products

Special Offers

Laboratory Reagents Handbook

The Laboratory Reagents Handbook reflects the choice of Fisher Chemical solvents and reagents available from Fisher Scientific.

Reference handbook for the analytical chemist on the bench includes:

  • Over 4400 Fisher Chemical products dedicated to many analytical applications including more than 250 new products such as Optima LC/MS solvents and high purity acids for Trace Elemental analysis
  • Color coded application
  • Physical & Chemical data
  • Hazard, packaging and storage information
  • Specification
  • The full Fisher BioReagents product range
  • Two classifications – to simplify your searches
    • Classification by applications
    • Alphabetical classification